A Heart Valve Surgery is the surgical procedure in a human heart which is performed to sustain the normal functions for pumping blood in a single direction. Heart valves participate to play a vital role in the entire process of one-way blood flow. The opening and closing of valves with each heartbeat is necessary. The pressure alters on either side of the valves forcing them to unlock their flap-like cusps or leaflets on accurate time, and then close firmly to stop a backflow of blood.
How many heart valves are there in a human body?
What is the significance of a Heart Valve Surgery?
Each year, surgeons carry out a lot of heart valve operations. Almost all of these surgeries are performed to repair or replace the aortic or mitral valves. These valves are found working on the left side of a heart, which functions harder than the right side valves. The left side valves manage the flow of oxygen-loaded blood to the remaining part of a human body from the lungs. If these valves are damaged in mild level, doctors might be able to treat it with necessary medications. If these valves get severe damage, then heart valve operation for repairing or replacing them are the last options.
A heart valve repair can typically be completed on congenital valve imperfections (defects which a human being has by birth) and has a superior success evidence with treating mitral valve faults.
Expert medical practitioners may use Commissurotomy technique, which is meant for tapering valves, and where the leaflets are condensed and perhaps jammed jointly. The doctor unlocks the valve by cutting the tips where the leaflets meet up.
Doctors use Valvuloplasty method, which reinforces the leaflets to supply more support and this allow a valve to close strongly. This support arrives from a ring-like mechanism that surgeons fasten around the exterior part of the valve opening.
Another technique called Reshaping is done, where a general practitioner cuts out a segment of a cusp. Once that cusp or leaflet is sewn back mutually, the valve can close up appropriately.
Decalcification is another method used by the physicians, through which the removal of calcium increase from the leaflets is performed. Once the calcium is detached, the leaflets can seal suitably.
A repair surgery of a heart valve is also done through a structural support system, which replaces or cut down the cords that provide the valves hold up (such cords are known as chordae tendineae and papillary muscles also). When these cords are established in right length, then a valve can shut correctly.
One more way to perform heart valve repair surgery by a doctor is patching, where the expert physician covers tears or holes in the leaflets with a tissue patch from the patient’s body and might be from other human body friendly materials.
A severe valve damage means that the valve will necessitate to be replaced. A heart valve replacement is frequently used to take care of aortic valves and severely damaged mitral valves. At times, more than one valve can be damaged in a heart; consequently patients may require more than one valve replacement or repair.
Normally, two different types of valves are used for a valve replacement operation in a human heart. These are:
Mechanical valves: These are habitually made from supplies such as carbon, plastic and metal. Mechanical valves are physically powerful, and they last an extensive time. Since, blood tends to attach to mechanical valves and generate blood clots; patients with these valves will necessitate receiving blood-thinning medication (generally called anticoagulants) till the end of their lives.
Biological valves: These are prepared from animal tissue (known as xenograft) or in use from a human being tissue of a donated heart (known as homograft or allograft). From time to time, a patient’s personal tissue can be taken for valve replacement (known as autograft). Patients with biological valves generally do not require taking prolonged blood-thinning medicine of any kind. These valves are not as sturdy as mechanical valves; however, and might need to be replaced on 15-20 years duration. Biological valves crack down even quicker in kids and young adults, therefore these valves are used most frequently in mature patients. Here, the consultation with an expert doctor to know which type of valve is required is extremely essential before a replacement surgery.